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— Appendix E —
RFCs


Most of the information about the TCP/IP protocol family is published as Requests For Comments (RFCs). RFCs define the various aspects of the protocol, its use, and management as a set of loosely coordinated notes.

The RFCs contain a lot of useless information (mostly because it is system-specific or considerably outdated), but they also contain a wealth of detail for those who want to take TCP/IP to its limits. Unexpectedly, there is quite a bit of interesting and humorous reading in the RFCs, including several classic works such as "'Twas the Night Before Start-up" (RFC 968), "ARPAWOCKY" (RFC 527), and "Telnet Randomly—Lose Option" (RFC 748).

This appendix lists the important (or, as just mentioned, interesting or humorous) RFCs that readers might want to refer to. Instructions for accessing the RFCs are also included. This list is not complete. Where possible, old and outdated RFCs have been dropped from the list. However, thinning the list of RFCs is a time-consuming process, involving reading each of the documents in turn. Because there are almost 1,500 RFCs, I have relied on other users' comments, notes from the NIC, and other reference works for a suitable pruning.

Accessing RFCs


RFCs can be obtained in several ways, the easiest of which is electronically. Paper copies are available upon request. Electronic copies are usually in ASCII format, although some are in PostScript format and require a PostScript interpreter to print them. Most RFCs obtained electronically do not have diagrams, figures, or pictures.

Accessing RFCs Through FTP


RFCs can be obtained using FTP through the Internet Network Information Center (NIC). Use FTP to access the NIC archive NIC.DDN.MIL. Use the user name guest and the password anonymous. RFCs can then be retrieved by using the FTP get command with the following format:


<RFC>RFC527.txt

Replace the RFC527 portion with the number of the RFC required. You can FTP into the NIC archive only if you have access to a machine with Internet access.

Accessing RFCs Through E-Mail


RFCs can be requested through electronic mail. Both the NIC and the NFSNET Network Service Center provide automated responses, returning the requested RFC. Both services read incoming electronic mail for keywords that indicate which RFC is required as well as the sender's e-mail address, then send back the RFC requested.

To obtain an RFC from the NIC, send a message with the subject field set to the RFC you want. Mail it to service@nic.ddn.mil. If you want more information on obtaining information through the NIC e-mail system, send mail with the word help as the subject.

To obtain RFCs from the NFSNET Network Service Center, send a message with the first two lines like this:


REQUEST: RFC

TOPIC: 527

The first line specifies that you want an RFC, and the second line gives the RFC number. Send the mail to info-server@sh.cs.net. For more information, set the topic to help.

Accessing Printed Copies of RFCs


If you do not have access to electronic communications, you can request a preprinted copy of an RFC. To obtain a printed copy of any RFC, call the Network Information Center at 1-800-235-3155.

It is considered bad manners to make the NIC staff wait while you find which RFCs you want. Make a list of them first, so your telephone conversation is short and succinct. They must answer many calls a day and are usually quite busy.

Useful RFCs Sorted by Category


Following are categorized lists of available RFCs.

General Information


RFC1360

"IAB Official Protocol Standards," Postel, J.B.; 1992

RFC1340

"Assigned Numbers," Reynolds, J.K.; Postel, J.B.; 1992

RFC1208

"Glossary of Networking Terms," Jacobsen, O.J.; Lynch, D.C.; 1991

RFC1180

"TCP/IP Tutorial," Socolofsky, T.J.; Kale, C.J.; 1991

RFC1178

"Choosing a Name for Your Computer," Libes, D.; 1990

RFC1175

"FYI on Where to Start: A Bibliography of Inter-networking Information," Bowers, K.L.; LaQuey, T.L.; Reynolds, J.K.; Reubicek, K.; Stahl, M.K.; Yuan, A.; 1990

RFC1173

"Responsibilities of Host and Network Managers: A Summary of the Oral Tradition of the Internet," vanBokkelen, J.; 1990

RFC1166

"Internet Numbers," Kirkpatrick, S.; Stahl, M.K.; Recker, M.; 1990

RFC1127

"Perspective on the Host Requirements RFCs," Braden, R.T.; 1989

RFC1123

"Requirements for Internet Hosts—Application and Support," Braden, R.T., ed; 1989

RFC1122

"Requirements for Internet Hosts—Communication Layers," Braden, R.T., ed; 1989

RFC1118

"Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet," Krol, E., 1989

RFC1011

"Official Internet Protocol," Reynolds, J.R.; Postel, J.B.; 1987

RFC1009

"Requirements for Internet Gateways," Braden, R.T.; Postel, J.B.; 1987

RFC980

"Protocol Document Order Information," Jacobsen, O.J.; Postel, J.B.; 1986



TCP and UDP


RFC1072

"TCP Extensions for Long-Delay Paths," Jacobson, V.; Braden, R.T.; 1988

RFC896

"Congestion Control in IP/TCP Internetworks," Nagle, J.; 1984

RFC879

"TCP Maximum Segment Size and Related Topics," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC813

"Window and Acknowledgment Strategy in TCP," Clark, D.D.; 1982

RFC793

"Transmission Control Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1981

RFC768

"User Datagram Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1980



IP and ICMP


RFC1219

"On the Assignment of Subnet Numbers," Tsuchiya, P.F.; 1991

RFC1112

"Host Extensions for IP Multicasting," Deering, S.E.; 1989

RFC1088

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over NetBIOS Networks," McLaughlin, L.J.; 1989

RFC950

"Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure," Mogul, J.C.; Postel, J.B.; 1985

RFC932

"Subnetwork Addressing Schema," Clark, D.D.; 1985

RFC922

"Broadcasting Internet Datagrams in the Presence of Subnets," Mogul, J.C.; 1984

RFC9l9

"Broadcasting Internet Datagrams," Mogul, J.C.; 1984

RFC886

"Proposed Standard for Message Header Munging," Rose, M.T.; 1983

RFC815

"IP Datagram Reassembly Algorithms," Clark, D.D.; 1982

RFC814

"Names, Addresses, Ports, and Routes," Clark, D.D.; 1982

RFC792

"Internet Control Message Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1981

RFC791

"Internet Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1981

RFC781

"Specification of the Internet Protocol (IP) Timestamp Option," Su, Z.; 1981



Lower Layers


RFC1236

"IP to X.121 Address Mapping for DDN," Morales, L.F. Jr.; 1991

RFC1220

"Point-to-Point Protocol Extensions for Bridging," Baker, F., ed.; 1991

RFC1209

"Transmission of IP Datagrams over the SMDS Service," Piscitello, D.M.; Lawrence, J.; 1991

RFC1201

"Transmitting IP Traffic over ARCNET Networks," Provan, D.; 1991

RFC1188

"Proposed Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over FDDI Networks," Katz, D.; 1990

RFC1172

"Point-to-Point Protocol Initial Configuration Options," Perkins, D.; Hobby, R.; 1990

RFC1171

"Point-to-Point Protocol for the Transmission of Multiprotocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links," Perkins, D.; 1990

RFC1149

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers," Waitzman, D.; 1990

RFC1055

"Nonstandard for Transmission of IP Datagrams over Serial Lines: SLIP," Romkey, J.L.; 1988

RFC1044

"Internet Protocol on Network System's HYPERchannel: Protocol Specification," Hardwick, K.; Lekashman, J.; 1988

RFC1042

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802 Networks," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1988

RFC1027

"Using ARP to Implement Transparent Subnet Gateways," Carl-Mitchell, S.; Quarterman, J.S.; 1987

RFC903

"Reverse Address Resolution Protocol," Finlayson, R.; Mann, T.; Mogul, J.C.; Theimer, M.; 1984

RFC895

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Experimental Ethernet Networks," Postel, J.B.; 1984

RFC894

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Ethernet Networks," Hornig, C.; 1984

RFC893

"Trailer Encapsulations," Leffler, S.; Karels, M.J.; 1984

RFC877

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Public Data Networks," Korb, J.T.; 1983



Bootstrapping


RFC1084

"BOOTP Vendor Information Extensions," Reynolds, J.K.; 1988

RFC951

"Bootstrap Protocol," Croft, W.J.; Gilmore, J.; 1985

RFC906

"Bootstrap Loading Using TFTP," Finlayson, R.; 1984



Domain Name System


RFC1101

"DNS Encoding of Network Names and Other Types," Mockapetris, P.V.; 1989

RFC1035

"Domain Names—Implementation and Specification," Mockapetris, P.V.; 1987

RFC1034

"Domain Names—Concepts and Facilities," Mockapetris, P.V.; 1987

RFC1033

"Domain Administrators Operations Guide," Lottor, M.; 1987

RFC1032

"Domain Administrators Guide," Stahl, M.K.; 1987

RFC974

"Mail Routing and the Domain System," Partridge, C.; 1986

RFC920

"Domain Requirements," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1984

RFC799

"Internet Name Domains," Mills, D.L.; 1981



File Transfer and File Access


RFC1094

"NFS: Network File System Protocol Specification," Sun Microsystems, Inc.; 1989

RFC1068

"Background File Transfer Program (BFTP)," DeSchon, A.L.; Braden, R. T.; 1988

RFC959

"File Transfer Protocol," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1985

RFC949

"FTP Unique-Named Store Command," Padlipsky, M.A.; 1985

RFC783

"TFTP Protocol (Revision 2)," Sollins, K.R.; 1981

RFC775

"Directory Oriented FTP Commands," Mankins, D.; Franklin, D.; Owen, A.D.; 1980



Mail


RFC1341

"MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Mechanisms for Specifying and Describing the Format of Internet Message Bodies," Borenstein, N.; Freed, N.; 1992

RFC1143

"Q Method of Implementing Telnet Option Negotiation," Bernstein, D.J.; 1990

RFC1090

"SMTP on X.25," Ullmann, R.; 1989

RFC1056

"PCMAIL: A Distributed Mail System for Personal Computers," Lambert, M.L.; 1988

RFC974

"Mail Routing and the Domain System," Partridge, C.; 1986

RFC822

"Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages," Crocker, D.; 1982

RFC821

"Simple Mail Transfer Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1982



Routing Protocols


RFC1267

"A Border Gateway Protocol 3 (BGP-3)," Lougheed, K.; Rekhter, Y.; 1991

RFC1247

"OSPF version 2," Moy, J.; 1991

RFC1222

"Advancing the NSFNET Routing Architecture," Braun, H.W.; Rekhter, Y.; 1991

RFC1195

"Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and Dual Environments," Callon, R.W.; 1990

RFC1164

"Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Internet," Honig, J.C.; Katz, D.; Mathis, M.; Rekhter, Y.; Yu, J.Y.; 1990

RFC1163

"Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)," Lougheed, K.; Rekhter, Y.; 1990

RFC1136

"Administrative Domains and Routing Domains: A Model for Routing in the Internet," Hares, S.; Katz, D.; 1989

RFC1074

"NSFNET Backbone SPF-Based Interior Gateway Protocol," Rekhter, J.; 1988

RFC1058

"Routing Information Protocol," Hedrick, C.L.; 1988

RFC911

"EGP Gateway under Berkeley UNIX 4.2," Kirton, P.; 1984

RFC904

"Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification," Mills, D.L.; 1984

RFC888

"STUB Exterior Gateway Protocol," Seamonson, L.; Rosen, E.C.; 1984

RFC827

"Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)," Rosen, E.C.; 1982

RFC823

"DARPA Internet Gateway," Hinden, R.M.; Sheltzer, A.; 1982



Routing Performance and Policy


RFC1254

"Gateway Congestion Control Survey," Mankin, A.; Ramakrishnan, K.K, eds.; 1991

RFC1246

"Experience with the OSPF Protocol," Moy, J., ed.; 1991

RFC1245

"OSPF Protocol Analysis," Moy, J., ed; 1991

RFC1125

"Policy Requirements for Inter-Administrative Domain Routing," Estrin, D.; 1989

RFC1124

"Policy Issues in Interconnecting Networks," Leiner, B.M.; 1989

RFC1104

"Models of Policy-Based Routing," Braun, H.W.; 1989

RFC1102

"Policy Routing in Internet Protocols," Clark, D.D.; 1989



Terminal Access


RFC1205

"Telnet 5250 Interface," Chmielewski, P.; 1991

RFC1198

"FYI on the X Window System," Scheifler, R.W.; 1991

RFC1184

"Telnet Linemode Option," Borman, D.A., ed.; 1990

RFC1091

"Telnet Terminal-Type Option," VanBokkelen, J.; 1989

RFC1080

"Telnet Remote Flow Control Option," Hedrick, C.L.; 1988

RFC1079

"Telnet Terminal Speed Option," Hedrick, C.L.; 1988

RFC1073

"Telnet Window Size Option," Waitzman, D.; 1988

RFC1053

"Telnet X.3 PAD Option," Levy, S.; Jacobson, T.; 1988

RFC1043

"Telnet Data Entry Terminal Option: DODIIS Implementation," Yasuda, A.; Thompson, T.; 1988

RFC1041

"Telnet 3270 Regime Option," Rekhter, Y.; 1988

RFC1013

"X Window System Protocol, version 11: Alpha Update," Scheifler, R.W.; 1987

RFC946

"Telnet Terminal Location Number Option," Nedved, R.; 1985

RFC933

"Output Marking Telnet Option," Silverman, S.; 1985

RFC885

"Telnet End of Record Option," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC861

"Telnet Extended Options: List Option," Postel, J.B; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC860

"Telnet Timing Mark Option," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC859

"Telnet Status Option," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC858

"Telnet Suppress Go Ahead Option," Postel, J.B,; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC857

"Telnet Echo Option," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC856

"Telnet Binary Transmission," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC855

"Telnet Option Specifications," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC854

"Telnet Protocol Specification," Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1983

RFC779

"Telnet Send-Location Option," Killian, E.; 1981

RFC749

"Telnet SUPDUP-Output Option," Greenberg, B.; 1978

RFC736

"Telnet SUPDUP Option," Crispin, M.R; 1977

RFC732

"Telnet Data Entry Terminal Option," Day, J.D.; 1977

RFC727

"Telnet Logout Option," Crispin, M.R.; 1977

RFC726

"Remote Controlled Transmission and Echoing Telnet Option," Postel, J.B.; Crocker, D.; 1977

RFC698

"Telnet Extended ASCII Option," Mock, T.; 1975



Other Applications


RFC1196

"Finger User Information Protocol," Zimmerman. D.P.; 1990

RFC1179

"Line Printer Daemon Protocol," McLaughlin, L.; 1990

RFC1129

"Internet Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol," Mills, D.L.; 1989

RFC1119

"Network Time Protocol (version 2) Specification and Implementation," Mills, D.L.; 1989

RFC1057

"RPC: Remote Procedure Call Protocol Specification: Version 2," Sun Microsystems, Inc.; 1988

RFC1014

"XDR: External Data Representation Standard," Sun Microsystems, Inc.; 1987

RFC954

"NICNAME/WHOIS," Harrenstien, K.; Stahl, M.K.; Feinler, E.J.; 1985

RFC868

"Time Protocol," Postel, J.B.; Harrenstien, K.; 1983

RFC867

"Daytime Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC866

"Active Users," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC8G5

"Quote of the Day Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC8G4

"Character Generator Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC863

"Discard Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1983

RFC862

"Echo Protocol," Postel, J.B.; 1983



Network Management


RFC1271

"Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base," Waldbusser, S.; 1991

RFC1253

"OSPE version 2: Management Information Base," Baker, P.; Coltun, R.; 1991

RFC1243

"Appletalk Management Information Base," 1991

RFC1239

"Reassignment of Experimental MIBs to Standard MIBs," Reynolds, J.K.; 1991

RFC1238

"CLNS MIB for Use with Connectionless Network Protocol (ISO 8473) and End System to Intermediate System (ISO 9542)," Satz, G.; 1991

RFC1233

"Definitions of Managed Objects for the DS3 Interface Type," Cox, T.A.; Tesink, K., eds.; 1991

RFC1232

"Definitions of Managed Objects for the DS1 Interface Type," Baker, F.; Kolb, C.P., eds.; 1991

RFC1231

"IEEE 802.5 Token Ring MIB," McCloghrie, K.; Fox, R.; Decker, E.; 1991

RFC1230

"IEEE 802.4 Token Bus MIB," McCloghrie, K.; Fox R.; 1991

RFC1229

"Extensions to the Generic-Interface MIB," McCloghrie, K., ed.; 1991

RFC1228

"SNMP-DPI: Simple Network Management Protocol Distributed Program Interface," Carpenter, G.; Wijnen, B.; 1991

RFC1227

"SNMP MUX protocol and MIB," Rose, M.T.; 1991

RFC1224

"Techniques for Managing Asynchronously Generated Alerts," Steinberg, L.; 1991

RFC1215

"Convention for Defining Traps for Use with the SNMP," Rose, M.T., ed.; 1991

RFC1214

"OSI Internet Management: Management Information Base," LaBarre, L., ed.; 1991

RFC1213

"Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based Internets: MiB-II," McCloghrie, K.; Rose, M.T., eds.; 1991

RFC1212

"Concise MIB Definitions," Rose, M.T.; McCloghrie, K., eds.; 1991

RFC1187

"Bulk Table Retrieval with the SNMP," Rose, M.T.; McCloghrie, K.; Davin, J.R.; 1990

RFC1157

"Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)," Case, J.D.; Fedor, M.; Schoffstall, M.L.; Davin, C.; 1990

RFC1156

"Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based Internets," McCloghrie, K.; Rose, M.T.; 1990

RFC1155

"Structure and Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP-Based Internets," Rose, M.T.; McCloghrie, K.; 1990

RFC1147

"FYI on a Network Management Tool Catalog: Tools for Monitoring and Debugging TCP/IP Internets and Interconnected Devices," Stine, R.H., ed.; 1990

RFC1089

"SNMP over Ethernet," Schoffstall, M.L.; Davin, C.; Fedor, M.; Case, J.D.; 1989



Tunneling


RFC1241

"Scheme for an Internet Encapsulation Protocol: Version 1," 1991

RFC1234

"Tunneling IPX Traffic through IP Networks," Provan, D.; 1991

RFC1088

"Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over NetBIOS Networks," McLaughlin, L.J.; 1989

RFC1002

"Protocol Standard for a NetBIOS Service on a TCP/UDP Transport: Detailed Specifications," NetBIOS Working Group; 1987

RFC1001

"Protocol Standard for a NetBIOS Service on a TCP/UDP Transport: Concepts and Methods," NetBIOS Working Group; 1987



OSI


RFC1240

"OSI Connectionless Transport Services on Top of UDP: Version 1," Shue, C.; Haggerty, W.; Dobbins, K.; 1991

RFC1237

"Guidelines for OSI NSAP Allocation in the Internet," Gollela, R.; Gardner, E.P.; Callon, R.W.; 1991

RFC1169

"Explaining the Role of GOSIP," Cerf, V.G.; Mills, K.L.; 1990



Security


RFC1244

"Site Security Handbook"

RFC1115

"Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part III—Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers [Draft]," Linn, J.; 1989

RFC1114

"Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part II—Certificate-Based Key Management [Draft]," Kent, S.T.; Linn, J.; 1989

RFC1113

"Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part I—Message Encipherment and Authentication Procedures [Draft]," Linn, J.; 1989

RFC1108

"Security Options for the Internet Protocol," 1991



Miscellaneous


RFC1251

"Who's Who in the Internet: Biographies of IAB, IESG, and IRSG Members," Malkin, G.S.; 1991

RFC1207

"FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked 'Experienced Internet User' Questions," Malkin, G.S.; Marine, A.N.; Reynolds, J.K.; 1991

RFC1206

"FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked 'New Internet User' Questions," Malkin, G.S.; Marine, A.N.; 1991


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